How ticks get under your skin: insertion mechanics of the feeding apparatus of Ixodes ricinus ticks

Published Date
Journal
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Citation
Proc Biol Sci. 2013 Oct 30;280(1773):20131758
DOI
10.1098/rspb.2013.1758
Authors
Richter D
Matuschka FR
Spielman A
Mahadevan L
Abstract

The tick Ixodes ricinus uses its mouthparts to penetrate the skin of its host and to remain attached for about a week, during which time Lyme disease spirochaetes may pass from the tick to the host. To understand how the tick achieves both tasks, penetration and attachment, with the same set of implements, we recorded the insertion events by cinematography, interpreted the mouthparts' function by scanning electron microscopy and identified their points of articulation by confocal microscopy. Our structural dynamic observations suggest that the process of insertion and attachment occurs via a ratchet-like mechanism with two distinct stages. Initially, the two telescoping chelicerae pierce the skinand, by moving alternately, generate a toehold. Subsequently, a breaststroke-like motion, effected by simultaneous flexure and retraction of both chelicerae, pulls in the barbed hypostome. This combination of a flexible, dynamic mechanical ratchet and a static holdfast thus allows the tick to solve the problem of how to penetrate skin and also remain stuck for long periods of time.